Vegetable Oil Refinery
Vegetable Oil RefineryIn refining, physical & chemical processes are combined to remove undesirable natural as well as environmental- related components from the crude oil.

These components comprise for example phosphatides, free fatty acids, pigments ( such as chlorophyll ), odors & flavors (including aliphatic aldehyde & ketone), waxes as well as heavy metals, pesticides etc…

Depending on the requirements, the following basic processes are implemented:      Refined edible oils are either directly used for human nutrition or serve as feed stock for further processing for example, for mayonnaise, margarine, shortening & for production of biodiesel. Important process steps in this context are fractionation, hardening & interesterification.

SPARKTECH offers customized machine solutions for meet the individual requirements of the customers.

Different Degumming processes are carried out to remove phosphatides. For efficient & economic application of this procedure SPARKTECH provides appropriate machines & equipment.



WATER DEGUMMING
A large part of the phosphatides (gums) can be hydrated quickly & easily. If the pressed or extracted oil contains a considerable quantity of gums the oil is subjected to the water Degumming process immediately following extraction. In this process, water is added to the oil. After certain reaction period the hydrated phosphatides can be separated either by decantation (settling) or continuously by means of centrifuges.

In this process step a large part of hydra table & even a small proportion of the non-hydratable phosphatides are removed.

The extracted gum can be processed into lecithin for food, feed or for technical proposes.
The gum content in the oil is subsequently reduced according to the refining quality requirements.

In principle, the combination & concept of further processing stages is distinguished by
  • Chemical refining
  • Physical refining
In chemical refining the free fatty acid are neutralized by caustic soda resulting so-called “soap stock” which is also separated either by decantation or continuously by means of centrifuges.Simultaneously the non-hydra table phosphatides are also separated in the process.

In physical refining the gum content can be further reduced by different processes :
DRY ACID DEGUMMING:
Dry acid Degumming is a particularly suitable for processing oils with low gum content such as palm oil, coconut oil, palm kernel Oil Coconut oil Palm Kernel oil or animal fats intensive mixing is implemented following addition Of acid to the pre-heated crude oil the pre heated crude oil theconditioned Gums are observed into the bleaching earth and are separated by filtration
The benefits of the dry acid degumming processor are:
  • Efficiency as a result of Low energy Consumption Low Operation and maintenance Cost (Study and reliable control system)Long service Life (The components are acid proof),Minimum Foot print,Low Investment Cost.
  • Environmental –friendly as no Wastewater or soup stocks occur.
Wet acid Degumming
Initially oils with higher gum contents (e.g. corn oil) are similarly processed as in dry acid degumming.However, to achieve gum hydration water is added following acid apportioning the gums are removed by separator prior to bleaching.
This process is beneficial as
  • centrifuges enable easy separation of gums in oil type with higher Non-hydra table gums contents (e.g. rape oil and soybean oil)
  • The consumption of bleaching earth is reduced because the oil has Already been extensively degummed.
Dry or wet acid degumming are not always sufficient to reduce gums to Value required in the oil prior to the combined deodorization and distillationProcess.
Thus, we have developed a special degumming process:
Oil conditioning with acids is generally based on the
  • Retention of the mixture at a predefined temperature,
  • Cooling of the mixture & simultaneous addition of caustic soda or a comparable flocculating agent,
  • Further retention & reaction of the mixture, the heating & subsequent separation of the gums in a centrifuge,
  • Washing of the oil in a second centrifuge stage to remove any gum residue.
Compared to classic chemical refining these processes ensure
  • Higher yield
  • Less operating resources
  • Improved environmental friendliness as no soap stock splitting on –site is required
  • Reduced consumption of bleaching earth & Convenient operation due to automation.
The UF Degumming features further specific benefits. The UF degummed oil is characterized by increased storage stability as gums as well as prooxidative metals such as iron & copper are also widely removed. This ensures considerable improvement of the product quality. Existing centrifugal system can be retrofitted cost – effectively to UF Degumming plants. An appropriate UF Degumming plant design enables chemical neutralization of minor quality oils which cannot be processed in physical refining.

Bleaching
Today we use a continuous bleaching process apart from special applications & minor processing quantities. This is used for :
  • Bleaching degummed oil prior to physical neutralizing & deodorization
  • Bleaching wet-degummed & chemically neutralized oil prior to deodorization
  • Post refining of hydrogenated & chemically interesterified oils & fats.


Sr. No. Item Description
1 T-600 NEUTRAL OIL TANK
2 P-600 OIL FEED PUMP
3 E-601 OIL HEATER
4 B-601 CONT. BLEACHER
5 BT-602 EARTH DOSSING TANK
6 P-601 BLEACHED OIL FILTER PUMP
7 F-603,4 VER. PRESSURE LEAF FILTER
8 F-605a,b POLISH FILLTER
9 V-601 VACUUM PRO. UNIT
10 T-700 BLEACHED OIL TANK


In this process a pre-defined quantity of bleaching earth (adsorbent natural or activated earth, mixed with activated carbon if necessary) is continuously added to the oil.

This process is specially characterized by the loop reactor enabling operation without the agitator tanks as well as simultaneous intensive mixture & contact of the bleaching earth with the oil. The bleaching earth is filtrated following reaction period.

In addition to the common target of lightening the oil color the bleaching process also meets numerous requirements :
The bleaching earth adsorbs color pigments as well as oxidation – supporting metal ions, complex compounds, residual soaps & similar substances such as traces of catalyst from hudrogenation.
Furthermore, it serves as a filter for impurities & for gums precipitated by acid in dry Degumming.

The benefits of the continuous bleaching process are :
Enhanced product quality bleaching under vacuum, gentle heating through optimized temperature control in intensive decoloration of the oil, Increased efficiency, optimized utilization of the bleaching earth through intensive reaction of the mixture during circulation in the loop reactor, convenient operation & maintenance through sturdy flow & level control , easy filter emptying , degree of automation according to the customer’s requirements, energy efficiency through additional heat recovery, higher wear resistance through high quality materials ( e.g. special pump seals).


WINTERIZATION
For refining products to be bottled as edible oils ( e.g. sunflower seed oil or corn oil) winterization is required to achieve the necessary cold stability. Winterization prevents crystallization & clouding of the waxes contained in the oil at ambient temperature.
In the winterization process the oil is cooled by heat exchange with cold water to a temperature between approx. 5 & 10 degree C. Crystals causingoil clouding are formed during a mature period of up to 24 hours & are subsequently separated.
This is implemented by continuously adding filtering aids & filtration via horizontal filters.


Sr. No. Item Description Sr. No. Item Description
1 T-1,T-2 CRUDE OIL TANK 10 E-3 PLATE HEAT EXCHANGE
2 P-1 CRUDE OIL PUMP 11 M-2 MIXER
3 E-1 PLATE HEAT EXCHANGE 12 S-2 CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR
4 M-2 MIXER 13 P-3 CENTIFUGAL PUMP
5 HT HYDRATION TANK 14 E-4 PLATE HEAT EXCHANGE
6 PD ROTOR PUMP 15 M-3 MIXER
7 E-2 PLATE HEAT EXCHANGE 16 S-3 CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR
8 S-1 CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR 17 VD VACUUM PUMP
9 P-2 CENTIFUGAL PUMP




COMBI-PROCESS
To avoid undesired by-products such as soaps oil refining is implemented in physical processes. SPARKTECH combines the wet Degumming & winterization process into unique process which enables separation of gums & waxes in a single step. The cooling phase in the combi-process is adjusted to the temperature & retention time of the winterization process & the already solid gums are used as germs for wax crystals. The downstream filtration of the Degumming centrifuge removes minor wax residues; the use of filter aids is minimal vis-à-vis the classic winterization process.

DEODORIZATION
Deodorization is the quality-defining process step in the refining oils & fats & therefore particularly significant. Undesired by-products remain in the oil or fat following the preceding refining processes. These can impair the odor, taste or shelf life of the products & must therefore be removed. Some of these by-products are till bound in the fat molecules. They are only released by chemical transformation provided that the oil has been sufficiently retained in the deodorizer.
Free and low-boiling substance are distilled at higher temperatures in a high vacuum steam is added for stripping.
Batch –deodorizers are still used today for smallest throughputs whilst Semi- continuous plants are found in large –scale operations.
For any application and throughput of deodorization we offer established and state –of –the-art concepts.



Continuous Deodorization Plants
The use of continuously operating deodorization plant features highest efficiency for deodorizing large product batches and high throughput Requirements .investment cost and low energy consumption quickly Pay off. With an automatic product change system, our continuously operating Deodorizers plant reaps the benefits of the simple product change. The continuous operation also ensures the benefits such as low steam consumption and a high degree of heat recovery are retained.



An Automatic system can be applied for frequent start-up and shut-down Operation the continuous deodorizer operates according to the counter Current principle:

The product and strip steam are directed in countercurrent during the entire processing time.

The continuous deodorizer is also an established distillation device in case Of higher concentration of fatty acids an upstream countercurrent column Is connected to the deodorizer this combination is particularly economical As the exhaust vapors from the deodorizer can additionally be used in the Pre deacidification process this ensures optimal absorbing capacity of the stripping steam resulting in considerable saving of resources for vacuum Generation.
The continuous countercurrent deodorizer features extraordinary benefits
Excellent product quality
  • gentle cooling under deodorizing conditions
  • uniform processing (narrow retention time spectrum)
  • throughput and processing time are infinitely adjustable to product properties.
High efficiency :
  • intergraded countercurrent heat transfer with high recovery (>80%),
  • long service life due to highest production quality and materials, no moving parts, minor footprint through compact configuration (e.g. integrated vapor scrubber).
Optimal operational safety, easy operation & maintenance :
  • Trouble –free operation due to level control in the devices ensuring uniform optimal pump operation.
  • Easy inspection of all trays through the central shaft.
  • Easy product change (automatic product change system).
  • Gentle cooling under deodorizing conditions.
SEMI – CONTINUOUS DSODORIZATION PLANTS
For generating high- quality oil & fat mixtures for the production of shortening or margarines frequently changing fat or oil batches must be deodorized. The use of semi-continuously operating deodorizer is recommended for this purpose. The requirements for such production process are fully met & ensure :
  • Clear separation of the batches.
  • Precise adherence to defined retention times & other processing conditions.
  • Unlimited distillation options.
Our approach for process technology & constructive decisions in building semi-continuous deodorizer is : creating an optimally refined product which is highly resistant against taste reversions & deterioration.
This semi-continuous deodorizer enables easy operation. A programmable controller guarantees fully automated process cycles. The controller can be adjusted to meet the customer’s requirements & integrated into the computer- controlled.
Our semi- continuous deodorizer is characterized is characterized by particular benefites.
Excellent product quality :
  • Gentle cooling & heating under deodorizing conditions
  • Pre-selectable throughput & processing conditions.
  • Uniform processing for each individual batch as a result of the semi-continuous operating method.
  • Clear product separation thanks to consistent batch separation, indirect heat transfer & automatic residual emptying during product change.
High efficiency through :
  • Integrated heat transfer with high heat recovery, which is also fully maintained during a product change ( “Thermosyphon System’’).
  • Long service life thanks to high production quality & materials
  • Minor footprint thanks to compact design.
  • Standards sizes with narrow graduation from 30 t/d up to more than 1000 t/d.
  • High operational safety, maximum leak tightness & easy access for inspections.



Continuous Deodorization Plants